Defined in the narrow sense of a family nucleus consisting of a couple without children, a couple with one or more children or a lone parent with one or more children.

Fields of Study

    According to ISCED 1976, the following fields of study can be distinguished:

    • Agriculture - Includes general programmes in agriculture, animal husbandry, horticulture, crop husbandry, agricultural economics, food sciences and technology, soil and water sciences, veterinary medicine, forestry, forest products technology, fishery science and technology.
    • Architecture and town planning - Includes architecture, town planning, landscape architecture.
    • Commerce - Includes business administration and commercial programmes, accountancy, secretarial programmes, business machine operation and electronic data processing, financial management, public administration, institutional administration.
    • Education - Includes general teacher training, teacher training programmes with specialization in vocational subjects, education science.
    • Engineering - Includes chemical engineering and materials techniques, civil engineering, electrical and electronics engineering, surveying, industrial engineering, metallurgical engineering, mining engineering, mechanical engineering, agricultural and forestry engineering techniques, fishery engineering techniques.
    • Home economics - Includes household arts, consumer food research and nutrition.
    • Humanities & Art - Includes languages and literature, linguistics, comparative literature, programmes for interpreters and translators, history, archaeology, philosophy, religion and theology, art studies, drawing and painting, sculpturing, handicrafts, music, drama, photography and cinematography, interior design, history and philosophy of art.
    • Law - Includes law, programmes for 'notaires', local magistrates, and jurisprudence.
    • Mass communication - Includes journalism, programmes in radio and television broadcasting, public relations, communications arts, library science, programmes for technicians in museums and similar repositories, documentation techniques.
    • Medical Science - Includes medicine, surgery and medical specialities, hygiene and public health, physiotherapy and occupational therapy, nursing, midwifery, medical X-ray techniques and other programmes in medical diagnostic and treatment techniques, medical technology, dentistry, stomatology and odontology, dental techniques, pharmacy, optometry.
    • Natural Science, Maths, Computer Science - Includes biological science, chemistry, geological science, physics, astronomy, meteorology, oceanography, general programmes in mathematics, statistics, actuarial science, computer science.
    • Social & Behavioural Science - Includes social and behavioural science, economics, demography, political science, sociology, anthropology, psychology, geography, and studies of regional cultures.

    According to ISCED 1997, the following fields of study can be distinguished:

    • General Programmes - Includes basic general programmes pre-primary, elementary, primary, secondary, etc., simple and functional literacy, numeracy, and personal development, i.e. enhancing personal skills, e.g. behavioural capacities, mental skills, personal organizational capacities, life orientation programmes.
    • Education - Includes teacher training for pre-school, kindergarten, elementary school, vocational, practical, non-vocational subject, adult education, teacher trainers and for handicapped children. General and specialized teacher training programmes. Education science: curriculum development in non-vocational and vocational subjects. Educational assessment, testing and measurement, educational research, other education science.
    • Humanities and Arts - Includes arts. Fine arts: drawing, painting, sculpture; Performing arts: music, drama, dance, circus; Graphic and audio-visual arts: photography, cinematography, music production, radio and TV production, printing and publishing; Design; Craft skills. And includes humanities: Religion and theology; Foreign languages and cultures: living or 'dead' languages and their literature, area studies; Native languages: current or vernacular language and its literature; Other humanities: interpretation and translation, linguistics, comparative literature, history, archaeology, philosophy, ethics.
    • Social sciences, business, and law - Includes social and behavioural science: Economics, economic history, political science, sociology, demography, anthropology (except physical anthropology), ethnology, futurology, psychology, geography (except physical geography), peace and conflict studies, human rights. Journalism and information: Journalism; library technician and science; technicians in museums and similar repositories; Documentation techniques; Archival sciences. Business and administration: Retailing, marketing, sales, public relations, real estate; Finance, banking, insurance, investment analysis; Accounting, auditing, bookkeeping; Management, public administration, institutional administration, personnel administration; Secretarial and office work. And also includes law: Local magistrates, 'notaires', law (general, international, labour, maritime, etc.), jurisprudence, history of law.
    • Science - Includes life sciences: Biology, botany, bacteriology, toxicology, microbiology, zoology, entomology, ornithology, genetics, biochemistry, biophysics, other allied sciences, excluding clinical and veterinary sciences. Physical sciences: Astronomy and space sciences, physics, other allied subjects, chemistry, other allied subjects, geology, geophysics, mineralogy, physical anthropology, physical geography and other geosciences, meteorology and other atmospheric sciences including climatic research, marine science, vulcanology, palaeoecology. Mathematics and statistics: Mathematics, operations research, numerical analysis, actuarial science, statistics and other allied fields. And also includes computing: Computer sciences: system design, computer programming, data processing, networks, operating systems - software development only (hardware development should be classified with the engineering fields).
    • Engineering, manufacturing and construction - Includes engineering and engineering trades: Engineering drawing, mechanics, metal work, electricity, electronics, telecommunications, energy and chemical engineering, vehicle maintenance, surveying. Manufacturing and processing: Food and drink processing, textiles, clothes, footwear, leather, materials (wood, paper, plastic, glass, etc.), mining and extraction. And includes architecture and building: Architecture and town planning: structural architecture, landscape architecture, community planning, cartography; Building, construction; Civil engineering.
    • Agriculture - Includes agriculture, forestry and fishery: Agriculture, crop and livestock production, agronomy, animal husbandry, horticulture and gardening, forestry and forest product techniques, natural parks, wildlife, fisheries, fishery science and technology. And includes veterinary: Veterinary medicine, veterinary assisting.
    • Health and welfare - Includes health: Medicine: anatomy, epidemiology, cytology, physiology, immunology and immunoaematology, pathology, anaesthesiology, paediatrics, obstetrics and gynaecology, internal medicine, surgery, neurology, psychiatry, radiology, ophthalmology; Medical services: public health services, hygiene, pharmacy, pharmacology, therapeutics, rehabilitation, prosthetics, optometry, nutrition; Nursing: basic nursing, midwifery; Dental services: dental assisting, dental hygienist, dental laboratory technician, odontology. Also includes social services: Social care: care of the disabled, childcare, youth services, gerontological services; Social work: counselling, welfare n.e.c.
    • Services - Includes personal services: Hotel and catering, travel and tourism, sports and leisure, hairdressing, beauty treatment and other personal services: cleaning, laundry, dry-cleaning, cosmetic services, domestic science. Transport services: Seamanship, ship's officer, nautical science, aircrew, air traffic control, railway operations, road motor vehicle operations, postal service. Environmental protection: Environmental conservation, control and protection, air and water pollution control, labour protection and security. And security services: Protection of property and persons: police work and related law enforcement, criminology, fire-protection and fire fighting, civil security; Military.