Labour force

    The labour force or "currently economically active population" comprises all persons who fulfil the requirements for inclusion among the employed or the unemployed, measured in relation to a short reference period such as one day or one week.

Life expectancy at 65 years

    Average number of years of life remaining to persons surviving to exact age specified, if subject to mortality conditions of the period indicated.

Life expectancy at birth

    The average number of years of life for males and females if they continued to be subject to the same same mortality experienced in the year(s) to which these life expectancies refer.

Level of education

    As defined by ISCED (International Standard Classification of Education) version 1997 or 1976.

    According to ISCED 1997 (latest revision)

    • Pre-primary education: Level 0. Defined as the initial stage of organized instruction. Level 0 programmes are designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school type environment.
    • Primary education: Level 1. Primary education or first stage of basic education. Normally designed to give students a sound basic education in reading, writing, and mathematics, along with an elementary understanding of other subjects.
    • Secondary education: Levels 2 and 3. Level 2: Lower secondary or second stage education of basic education is designed to complete the provision of basic education which begins at ISCED level 1. Level 3: (Upper) Secondary education. Typically begins at the end of full-time compulsory education, for those countries that have a system of compulsory education.
    • Post-secondary non-tertiary education: Level 4. Captures programmes that straddle the boundary between upper-secondary and post-secondary education from an international point of view, even though they might clearly be considered as upper-secondary or post-secondary programmes in a national context. ISCED 4 programmes can, considering their content, not be regarded as tertiary programmes.
    • Tertiary education: Levels 5 and 6. Level 5: First stage of tertiary education. Consisting of tertiary programmes having an educational content more advanced then those offered at levels 3 and 4. Level 5A programmes are tertiary programmes that are largely theoretically based and are intended to provide sufficient qualifications for gaining entry into advanced research programmes and professions with high skills requirements whereas, Level 5B qualifications are typically shorter and focus on occupationally specific skills geared for entry into the labour market. Level 6: Second stage of tertiary education (leading to an advanced research qualification). Reserved for tertiary programmes which lead to the award of an advanced research qualification.

    According to ISCED 1976

    • Pre-primary education: Level 0. Education provided to children not old enough to enter school at the first level (e.g. nursery school or kindergarten).
    • Primary education: Level 1. Designed to provide the basic elements of education. Entry to this level often coincides with the start of compulsory education (varying between ages 5 to 7), the most common duration being 6 years.
    • Secondary education: Levels 2 and 3. Education provided in middle schools, secondary schools, high schools, lyceums, gymnasiums etc. Level 2: The duration of lower secondary education the first stage of secondary education is generally 3-4 years and its completion often coincides with the end of compulsory schooling. The second stage (Level 3) usually constitutes the final 3-4 years of secondary education.
    • Tertiary education: Levels 5, 6 and 7. Level 5 - education leading to an award not equivalent to a first university degree. Level 6 - education leading to a first university degree or equivalent. Level 7 - education leading to a post-graduate university degree or equivalent.